AAAS 104-03

Hollywood and Africa

TuTh 1:15PM – 2:30PM, Friedl Bdg 126

Instructor: Smith, Stephen

This class is a two-legged journey across the continent, back and forth filmic representation and reality, drawing on the latter to critique the former. The repertoire spans from classics such as African Queen (East Africa), Tarzan (Equatorial Africa) and Out of Africa (Kenya) to recent productions like Blood Diamond (Sierra Leone), Lord of War (arms trade), The Constant Gardener (Kenya), Black Hawk Down (Somalia) and The Last King of Scotland (Uganda). For contrast, we will also view non-Hollywood films on Africa, namely Hotel Rwanda (Rwanda) or Lumumba (DRC).

AAAS 104-04/CULANTH 180-05/SXL 120-05/WOMENST 150-05

Sex Trade/Trafficking in Africa

WF 2:50PM – 4:05PM, Friedl Bdg 107

Instructor: Darkwah, Akosua

AAAS 107-01/CULANTH 136-01/ENGLISH 180-01/HISTORY 115C-01/POLSCI 174-01

Intro to African Studies

TuTh 1:15PM – 2:30PM, Old Chem 116

Instructor: Piot, Charles

A range of disciplinary perspectives on key topics in contemporary African Studies: nationalism and pan-Africanism, imperialism and colonialism, genocide and famine, development and democratization, art and music, age and gender.

AAAS 112S-01/DOCST 112S-01/HISTORY 150ES-01

Freedom Stories

W 11:40AM – 2:10PM, Bridges House 113

Instructor: Tyson, Timothy

Documentary writing course focusing on race and storytelling in the South, using fiction, autobiography, and traditional history books. Producing narratives using documentary research, interviews, and personal memories. Focus on twentieth-century racial politics.

AAAS 116-01/SOCIOL 116-01

Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies

MW 2:50PM – 4:05PM, TBA

Instructor: Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo

The social, legal and cultural construction of racial and ethnic hierarchies in a comparative international context with the United States and the United Kingdom of central analytical concern. Racial formation and racial segregation in specific historical and national contexts including the normative case of the Anglo-Saxon core in the United States and how its dominance has led to patterns of ethnic antagonism and discrimination; the historical context of racial stereotypes and their representation in various mediums. Social justice movements and public policies designed to challenge racial and ethnic domination including controversial topics such as “positive discrimination” (United Kingdom) and Affirmative Action (United States/South Africa). May include comparative case studies from India, South Africa, Brazil, and continental Europe.

AAAS 130-01/PUBPOL 129-01

United States Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities: Social Determinants and Public Policy Implications

TuTh 11:40AM – 12:55PM, Rubenstein Hall 151

Instructor: James, Sherman

This course examines the role of social and economic determinants of US racial and ethnic health disparities. Through lectures, readings, and class discussions, students will learn about the most commonly used indices to measure health disparities; the origins and evolution of racial/ethnic categories in the US Census; the role of poverty, discrimination, and racial residential segregation in producing health disparities; racial/ethnic disparities in access to quality health care; the promise and limitations of academic-community partnerships in reducing health disparities; and the pre-eminent role of public policies specifically designed to promote health equity in shaping the overall health of a society as well as the magnitude of health disparities among specific subgroups.

AAAS 131-01/DOCST 132-01

The South in Black and White

Tu 7:15PM – 9:30PM, Bridges House 007

Instructor: Tyson, Timothy

Focus on present-day and historical documentary traditions in American South, with an emphasis on call and response between black and white cultures. The arts and humanities as imbedded in particular histories and cultures found in the South, and as performed in music and theater; and portrayed in documentary films, civil rights photography, Southern literature, and historical and autobiographical writing. Includes historical texts, oral histories and testimonies of living persons, along with documentary films, photographs, and writings from people in Durham and elsewhere in the region.

AAAS 145B-01/HISTORY 145B-01

African Americans Since 1865

TuTh 1:15PM – 2:30PM, White Lecture 107

Instructor: Gavins, Raymond

Post-slavery black life and thought, as well as race relations and social change, during Reconstruction, Jim Crow, the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, and contemporary times; ethical concepts and issues on human justice in the course of struggles for democracy, tolerance, and equality.

AAAS 171-01

From Apartheid to Democracy in South Africa (B)

Time & Location: TBA

Instructor: Johns, Sheridan W.

The South African political system in the twentieth century with particular attention to the transition from apartheid and white minority rule to nonracial democracy.

AAAS  199S – 01/HISTORY 196S-03

Post-Civil Rights America

Th 3:05PM – 5:35PM, West Duke 202

Instructor” Gavins, Raymond

[Seminar version of African and African American Studies 199]

AAAS 199-01/POLSCI 199A-01

New Race Politics

MW 11:40AM – 12:55PM, Languages 109

Instructor: Haynie, Kerry L

BCS  260-01

Suffering, Evil and Redemption in Black Theology

Tu 2:30PM – 5:00PM, Langford 0041

Instructor: Williams, Tammy

Explores the black Christian tradition with respect to the problem of suffering and evil in black life.  Against the backdrop of the problem of evil in church history, the course provides a historic overview of perspectives on suffering and redemption articulated by African-American Christians such as Maria Stewart and Martin Luther King, Jr.

BIOLOGY   48-01/GENOME 48-01

Genetics, Genomics, and  Society: Implications for the 21st Century

WF 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Perkins 2-071

Instructor: Hill, Alison

Introduction to the foundation of genomic sciences with an emphasis on recent advances and their social, ethical and policy implications. Foundational topics including DNA, proteins, genome organization, gene expression, and genetic variation will be interwoven with contemporary issues emanating from the genome revolution such as pharmacogenetics, genetic discrimination, genomics of race, genetically modified crops, and genomic testing. Genomic sciences and policy science applied to present and future societal, and particularly ethical, concerns related to genomics. Intended for non-Biology majors. Not open to students who have taken Biology 118.

XTIANTHE  214 – 01

Feminist Theology: Globalization
M 2:30-5:00, 042L Divinity School

Instructor: Fulkerson, Mary McClintock

The course explores the economic, cultural and technological implications of globalization for feminist theology.  It will cover  a variety of geographical sites of feminist theorizing and activism,  as well as the implications of globalization for such topics  as  God, tradition, power, identity, comparative religion, and liberation.

CULANTH  180-01/ETHICS 180-04/MUSIC 120-02/PUBPOL 196-04/POLISCI 199D-01

The Arts and Human Rights

WF 1:15PM – 2:30PM, Allen 103

Instructor: Admay, Catherine, Louise Meintjes

This course explores the strategic embrace of the arts and human rights and the ways it complicates political, ethical, aesthetic and legal discourse. On the one hand, human rights lawyers and advocates turn to artists and the arts to “make a case” that the lawyers and advocates themselves suggest are beyond the law to make. On the other hand, those who would violate human rights also enlist the power of artists and the arts in their service. The course invites students to critically assess the intersection of human rights and the arts–in our readings, screenings, guest concerts, course projects and the many campaigns playing out daily on the world stage. Students who wish to take leadership roles as artists, lawyers, policy analysts, policy advocates, or activists working along the political and ethical faultlines of this century will build a good intellectual foundation to do so while learning to talk across disciplines about shared interests. Although case studies will be drawn from around the world and from multiple art forms, South African examples will feature prominently, as will music.

CULANTH  180 – 03/AAAS 199-04/PUBPOL 196-05

Current Issues in Anthropology: War Narratives in Africa

WF 8:30AM – 9:45AM, Friedl Bdg 126

Instructor: Smith, Stephen

This class is set up as an inquiry into personal experiences of war in Africa. It considers a wide range of countries – Angola, DRC, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Somalia, Sudan – where collective violence that can be labeled as war has occurred. It draws on a variety of perspectives, that of (child) soldiers, male or female combatants, “camp followers”, civilians or often frustrated peace-keepers. Sources include literary writing, such as Lobo Antunes’ Splendor of Portugal or Jean Hatzfeld’s Machete Season, as well as academic work and testimonies by victims or perpetrators available on the websites of the ICC, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda or the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The emphasis lies on war narratives but anthropological theories about “new wars” in Africa since the fall of the Berlin Wall (Paul Richards, William Reno, Stephen Ellis, etc.) will be introduced as analytical background.

CULANTH  180-08

Current Issues in Anthropology: Heritage/Tourism/Slavery

MW 1:15PM – 2:30PM, Friedl Bdg 240

Instructor: Holsey, Bayo

CULANTH  191VS-01/ICS 101BS-01/PUBPOL 130S-01

Doing Good: Anthropological Perspectives on Development

MW 4:25PM – 5:40PM, Room: TBA

Instructor: Mathers, Catherine

Course will move through the evaluation of the impact of development projects to consider the role of development as a global phenomenon that affects both what it means to be American and how the ‘other’ is constructed.

DOCST  190S – 04

Special Topics in Documentary Studies: Documentary and South Africa

MW 2:50PM – 4:05PM, Bridges House 104

Instructor: Lucey, Roger

This course will look at the manner in which the story of the South African struggle was told by competing media in the years leading up to the first Democratic election. It will then look at the challenges faced by media and independent practitioners since that momentous change. What are the lessons to be learned from the way in which the story was told? What were the implications of the news coverage by the different media? How did European coverage differ from reports in Britain which in turn differed from that in the USA? Why and how could their views have differed, often to an extreme extent?

ENGLISH  173S – 05/AAAS 199S-06

Special Topics in Language and Literature: States of Freedom

MW 2:50PM – 4:05PM, L.S.R.C. B105

Instructors: Crichlow, Michaeline and Sean Metzger

This course examines a wide range of cultural productions from different locations, including carnivals, music, film, literature, philosophy and other texts, in order to engage with the notion of freedom at the center of nation-state histories. Rather than assume that citizenship guarantees freedom and equality, this course investigates the ways in which citizenship is partial and incomplete-a process rather than a status. We will read work from the liberal tradition (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau) as well as a number of essays that will help us define some of the major terms for the class. We then turn to alternative imaginings as they maneuver around and challenge official ideologies, often through unexpected venues (Wyclef Jean’s lyrics, Christopher Cozier’s art, etc.)

ENGLISH   26S – 04

Studies in Literary Topics: Human/Inhuman

WF 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Brody Theater 202

Instructor: Khan, Azeen

“No, they were not inhuman. Well, you know, that was the worst of it — this suspicion of their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled, and leaped, and spun, and made horrid faces; but what thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity — like yours — the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar.” The above quote, taken from Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, a novel set in colonial Africa, lays out the terms of engagement for this course. For in this course, we will be asking a set of questions that speak back to Conrad’s novel: Who is being described in the above quote? Who is doing the describing? How is humanity defined? What marks the distinction between the “human” and the “inhuman,” and what kind of categories open up once the idea of “humanity” is disavowed? Extending these questions to a set of eighteenth and nineteenth century novels, for example Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe and Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, and the postcolonial iterations of these novels in the twentieth century, for example J.M. Coetzee’s Foe and Jean Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea, in this course we will read specifically for the manner in which the colonial subject is represented in these texts as the “inhuman” — variously coded, for example, in the figure of the animal, the monster, the mad woman, the ghost, the political prisoner.

ENVIRON  105S–01

Ethical Challenges in Environmental Conservation

MW 11:40AM – 12:55PM, L.S.R.C. A211

Instructor: Vidra, Rebecca

Ethical challenges in environmental conservation. Topics include the philosophical basis and challenges of mankind’s responsibility to the natural world; prioritization of often conflicting conservation efforts; balancing the needs of humans and the environment; the disputed role of scientists as advocates; and the philosophical and political obstacles to conservation efforts. Case studies on local and global issues, especially on the intersection of science and policy.

ENVIRON  274–01/PUBPOL274-01

Environmental Politics

TuTh 1:15PM – 2:30PM, L.S.R.C. A247

Instructor: Weinthal, Erika

Environmental policy formation and implementation in comparative perspective.  Topics include interest groups, environmental movements and parties, public opinion, political systems and institutions.  Case students selected from the United States and other advanced industrialized countries and the developing world. Instructor Consent Required

FRENCH  111S – 01

French Topics for Freshmen and Sophomores – Slavery Unchained: French Lit

TuTh 2:50PM – 4:05PM, Perkins LINK TBA

Instructor: Curtis, Lesley

“Slavery Unchained: Freedom and Bondage in the Literature of the French Atlantic.”
This course is organized around the theme of freedom in the literature of the French Atlantic. Students will read essays, plays, newspapers, declarations, and novels on the topic that were written on both sides of the Atlantic in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Some questions that will guide us during the semester are: how might one define slavery and freedom? How do definitions of freedom change from author to author and from time period to time period? How do different conceptions of race, gender and class influence certain authors’ definitions of freedom? What connections can be made between these definitions and French colonial and governmental policies?

GLHLTH  211S – 01

Healing in the Developing World and Care of the Underserved: Medical and Theological Considerations

M 3:05PM – 5:35PM, Room TBA

Instructor: Walmer, David

Issues related to health and healing in underserved populations examined through an integrated lens of medicine, health, and theology. Students from Medicine, Nursing, Divinity, undergraduate, etc. critically examine the process of providing culturally relevant assistance to underserved communities. Issues of moral discernment inherent to the study of health of both individuals and communities. Examination of societal and ethical issues relevant to cultural dimensions of healing. Students spend one week in Haiti. Instructor Consent Required

HISTORY  101ES – 01

Nationalism and Exile

Tu 6:00PM – 8:30PM, Carr Building 229

Instructor: Miller, Martin

The dilemmas confronting Russian and European exiles in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the context of nation-state identities. Focuses on political and literary exiles forced from their native countries. Central to the study is the role of the modern nation-state, from whose boundaries the exiles were expelled.

HISTORY  169A – 01/WOMENST 139-01

Women, Gender, and Sexuality in U.S. History

MW 11:40AM – 12:55PM, East Duke 209

Instructor: Edwards, Laura

Major questions relating to women and women’s place in society over the course of U.S. history, broadly defined, from the colonial period to the present: How did different groups of women see themselves as women? How did views of women’s sexuality change? How did men’s and women’s relationships and roles change? How did women understand their connections to the larger society? How did race, ethnicity, and class shape all those issues? Course uses a variety of materials, including novels, movies, images, and music to explore the ethical contours of women’s lives in the past, following change over time to better understand women’s position today.

HISTORY  170C – 01/AAAS 170-01/PORTUGUE 170C-01

Afro-Brazilian Culture and History

TuTh 11:40AM – 12:55PM, Friedl Bdg 107

Instructor: French, John

Slavery and the post-emancipation trajectory of Afro-Brazilians in a racist society which officially proclaims itself a “racial democracy.” Comparisons drawn with the Afro-American experience elsewhere in Latin America and the United States.

HISTORY  174A – 01

Latin America: Colonialism and Its Consequences

WF 11:40AM – 12:55PM, Room TBA

Instructor: French-Fuller, Katharine

The pre-Columbian cultures, European conquest and its effects on the Amerindian peoples, and development of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires to the wars of independence with special emphasis upon colonial institutions and socioeconomic developments. Not open to students who have taken History 174.

HISTORY  188A – 01

Genocide in the Twentieth Century

MW 8:30AM – 9:45AM, Gray 228

Instructor: Koonz, Claudia

Focus on four cases in which soldiers have launched murderous attacks against civilians: Turks against Armenians, Nazis against Jews and other racial enemies, Khmer Rouge against their Cambodian enemies, and “ethnic cleansing” in Yugoslavia. Examines responsibility of both perpetrators and bystanders.

HISTORY  196S – 09

Palestine/Arab-Israeli Conflict

Th 6:00PM – 8:30PM, Friedl Bdg 216

Instructor: Miller, Ylana

This seminar explores the origins and development of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Various approaches to the conflict are examined so that students can better understand its historical evolution, as well as its implications regionally and internationally. Major sections will be devoted to the creation of a Palestine mandate under British control. Zionism and Palestinian Arab nationalism, the establishment of Israel and the evolution of the dispute up to the present. The role of United States and its relationship to various participants in the conflict will also be discussed.

HISTORY  228S – 01

Twentieth Century Social Movements in America

Th 1:15PM – 3:45PM, West Duke 100

Instructor: Chafe, William

Focus on the emergence of the women’s movement and the civil rights movement, both concerned with issues of equality and justice, in the United States during the post-New Deal period.

ICS 130A-01/CULANTH  128-01

Culture and Politics in Latin America

TuTh 1:15PM – 2:30PM, Friedl Bdg 204

Instructor: Settle, Heather

Key themes in Latin American societies, including art, literature, history, violence and human rights, economic development, and rebellion and revolution. The course is an introduction to the cultures, politics and history of Latin America. The class will examine past and current issues of the region, through a cross-disciplinary approach that includes anthropological, historical, and literary reading, and film.

ICS 181H-01/HISTORY  156A – 01/RELIGION 158-01/MEDREN 156A-01

The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century

TuTh 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Gray 228

Instructor: Hillerbrand, Hans

A survey of the changes in sixteenth-century European society, with particular reference to the continent, which grew out of the movement for religious reform and socio-political renewal. Focus on new developments in theology and religion and their relationship to society in such issues as the definition of a “good society,” just war, and social justice.



TuTh 6:00PM – 8:00PM, Room TBA

Instructor: Clements, Dennis

The purpose of this course is to promote understanding the cultural background of the people of Latin America (particularly Honduras) and how that impacts the delivery of medical care.  The course content is designed to facilitate understanding how art, history, literature, music, geography, ethics and religion influence the practice of medicine in the Latin American Culture.  The Classes will be given by multidisciplinary faculty from Duke and UNC.  Medical Spanish instruction is included in each class to facilitate understanding the culture and facilitate encounters with Hispanic patients in our own environments as well as in Honduras.  The course will be held as a 2 hour seminar for 10 weeks (begins in January) with the trip to Honduras as an optional laboratory experience.  There will be 20 hours of instruction.  For more information, please contact Dr. Clements at 681-2286 or via email at  Secondary contact: Robert Streilen, by phone at 684-4578.  Students meet for the first day of classes in the School of Nursing Amphitheater the first Tuesday of the Semester at 6:00 p.m.

LIT   20S – 01

Introduction to Literature: Human Question

WF 8:30AM – 9:45AM, Social Sciences 109

Instructor: Uyurkulak, Serhat

What does it mean to be human? What distinguishes humans from other beings? Thinking? Feeling? Being a social animal? Artistic creativity? These are age-old questions theology, philosophy, arts and sciences have been trying to answer. The aim of this course is to investigate into the “human question” by studying a number of philosophical and literary texts, anime, comics, TV series and films that engage in defining or questioning humanness. Throughout the semester we will try to see at what moments in history the “human question” gains prominence and under what circumstances human is pronounced dead, defined as useless or valorized and sanctified.

LIT  353-02/ROMANST 320-03

The Literature of Terror, Trauma, and Mystery

M 4:25PM – 6:55PM, Room TBA

Instructor: Dorfman, Ariel

How do writers react to collective terror? Can their literature be a form of healing for a traumatized or wounded community? What tensions exist between the politics of memory and justice and the need to tell complex stories that may undermine the certainty of one incontrovertible form of the truth? These are some of the questions we will be exploring in this course. Starting with authors from Latin America (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Guatemala), some well known (Cortázar, Bolaňo, Piglia, Peri Rossi, Francisco Goldman) and others of less notoriety (Hernán Valdés, Carlos Martínez Moreno), we will then go on to compare with three writers from South Africa (Gordimer, Antjie Krog and Achmat Dangor) facing supposedly similar situations and coming up with entirely different aesthetic solutions. The course will end up looking at post 9/11 writings of Michael Ondaatje (Sri Lanka/Canada), Ian McEwan (England) and Toni Morrison (the United States) to probe how we can illuminate them by reading their works in the context of what we have already discovered in Latin America and South Africa. Some films will also be assigned. You can take this course with no knowledge of Spanish (all the work from Latin America has been translated into English), but reading skills in Spanish would be helpful. GRADUATE/PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS ONLY

POLSCI  158 – 01/PUBPOL 181-01

Non-State Actors in World Politics (D)

MW 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Social Sciences 136

Instructor: Buthe, Tim

Survey of broad range of non-state actors in world politics, including international organizations, supranational courts, NGOs, multinational corporations, transgovernmental and private transnational networks. Issues include environmental politics, human rights, globalization, and international terrorism.

POLSCI  278S – 01/AAAS 278-01/PUBPOL 278S-01

Race and American Politics (A)

M 2:50PM – 5:20PM, Perkins 307

Instructor: McClain, Paula

A broad overview of the salience of race in the American political fabric and how it structures racial attitudes on a number of political and policy dimensions. The definition and meaning of race have been to be shaped by U. S. political and legal institutions. Hence, politics and race in the United States have been inextricably intertwined. The course focuses on the continued salience of race in American politics, and its influence on white and black political attitudes and behavior.

PUBPOL  124 – 01/CCS 150-01

Children in Contemporary Society

TuTh 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Room: TBA

Instructor: Appleyard, Karen

Major developmental stages of childhood and influences in a child’s life: parents/family life, schools, communities, the economy Emphasis on 1) applying of theory for analyzing complex societal problems (often involving issues of race, class, and gender; 2) using material and methodologies from psychology, sociology, economics, and public policy. Required course for certificate program Children in Contemporary Society, but open to all undergraduate students.

PUBPOL  196S – 21

Civic Engagement and Public Policy

TuTh 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Rubenstein Hall 151

Instructor: Goss, Kristin

In recent years, there has been much public concern about Americans’ disengagement from civic life and what the “social capital” deficit means for U.S. democracy. This course will explore themes of civic engagement through two components: Discussion based on assigned readings and current events; and a community-based research and service project with Durham-based grassroots organizations. Through both components, we will explore the role of public participation in the policymaking process and the challenges facing organizations trying to make social and policy change. We will examine how American interest groups, social movements, and community service programs affect the public agenda and the performance of American democracy. We also will consider the role that public policies, such as federal tax laws and participation requirements, have played in structuring civic and political participation.

SOCIOL  173 – 01

Social Conflict and Social Movements

TuTh 4:25PM – 5:40PM, Room TBA

Instructor: Denniston, Ryan

Theories and current research in the United States and Europe on a variety of social movements and cycles of social protest, such as student movements, civil rights, liberation movements, secession movements in Western and non-Western countries, ethnic nationalism, fundamentalism, the women’s movement, and the environmental movement. The values of social movements that are in opposition to the prevalent norms and institutions of society.  Research paper required.

SOCIOL  191BS – 01

Gender, Labor, and Globalization

M 1:15PM – 3:45PM, Room TBA

Instructor: Hovsepian, Mary

Construction of gender influences, the incorporation of women into the global workforce, relocation of production under globalization influence, interconnections between work and gender.

SXL  120S – 02/WOMENST 150S-02/LIT 124S-02

Taking Our Bodies Back

MW 4:25PM – 5:40PM, East Duke 204D

Instructor: Warren, Shilyh

As the Women’s Liberation Movement coalesced in the late 1960s, women’s health was a critical focus for feminist activists. Issues such as: menses and menopause; abortion and birth control; childbirth and the politics of the pill; domestic violence; sexual abuse; sterilization; alternative feminist health care systems; and male dominance in the medical professions all formed part of discussions among women in publications, films, and consciousness-raising groups. In this course, we will investigate the particular demands, furies, and desires of women’s health activists of the 1970s. By focusing on issues of health, we will also gain a larger understanding of the Women’s Liberation Movement of the 1970s. For example, how did demands for abortion and contraception intersect with issues of race and class? How did a concern with women as sexual and reproductive beings intersect with gay and lesbian rights? And finally, what legacy has been left to us as a result of the activism surrounding women’s health in the 1970s?

WOMENST  168A-01/SXL 130-01

Gender, Sexuality, and Human Rights

TuTh 10:05AM – 11:20AM, Room TBA

Instructor: Wilson, Ara

This course investigates gender and sexual dimensions of human rights, considering key international human rights campaigns and emphasizing the historical and philosophical contexts involved in advocacy for Women’s Human Rights and Sexual Rights. May include a service-learning component.